Emerging Bangladesh

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The largest least developed country (LDC), Bangladesh, boosted by better health and education, lower vulnerability and an economic boom is blazing a trail on its way out of the LDC category. The UN- CDP, which is made up of twenty-four independent development experts from around the world review the list of LDCs every three years. The review takes place on the basis of a stringent methodology using a wide array of sustainable development indicators.

The UN-CDP measures the LDC category on the basis of the three criteria – Gross National Income (GNI), the Human Assets Index (HAI) and lastly the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI). A country must exceed thresholds on two of the three criteria at two consecutive triennial reviews to be considered for graduation.

GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad.

The Human Assets Index (HAI) is a composite index of education and health used as an identification criterion for LDCs by the UN-CDP.

Economic Vulnerability Index is one of the criteria used by the United Nations Committee for Development Policy in the identification of Least Developed Countries. The Economic Vulnerability

Index is a composition of the following eight indicators: 1) population size, 2) remoteness, 3) merchandise export concentration, 4) share of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in gross domestic product, 5) homelessness owing to natural disasters, 6) instability of agricultural production, and 7) instability of exports of goods and services, 8) the share of population living in low elevation coastal zone.

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