May 2019

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Vedic mythology tells you that Teesta originated from Parvati. But geographically, the river originates in Chitamu Lake in the Sikkim Himalayas. Her name changed a few times before she finally decided like a coy mistress to meet the Ganges in Bangladesh.

She was the source of life- water for the drought-prone northern parts of the Bengal delta. A few rivers even owe their existence to her. Teesta is the result of the accumulated flows of the Karotoya, Atrai and Punarbhaba rivers. Actually, the Bangla name Teesta comes from Tri-Srota or three flows.

Due to India’s withdrawal of water from the Teesta River, the part of the river that flows through Bangladesh has dried up. Due to lack of water flow, the ecosystem of the Teesta River is in peril. India has built an irrigation barrage on the Indian portion of the Teesta River at Jalpaiguri. This is creating a major water diversion which has caused the Panchagarh’s Teesta barrage irrigation area to dry up. The river bed is now filling up with piles of sand.


The whole northern part of Bangladesh is in a critical state due to one-sided water withdrawal of India. Both the countries, being good neighbors have had many meetings regarding the issue but none have proved to be fruitful. The ecosystem and biodiversity are suffering due to delays in resolving the water sharing issue. According to sources from the Department of Agricultural Extension, due to the irrigation-dependent boro paddy cultivation, the demand for Teesta water has seen an extensive increase. Thousands of fated farmers in the north of the country rely on irrigation of the flow of upstream water. In the current season, Teesta river waters’ flow is 5000 cusecs.

Despite floods, heavy hailstorms, and other climate challenges, three districts in the Rangpur division have managed to yield a bumper crop of Boro this season, as part of the Teesta barrage irrigation project.

According to sources from the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE), cropland of about 40,000 hectares was irrigated in the project command area — which should yield approximately 2,095,230 tonnes of rice priced at a minimum of Tk119 crore. Because of insufficient water upstream, 40,000 hectares of land were irrigated in the project command area.

The irrigation cost for a hectare of land, with an electric irrigation pump machine is Tk10,500. The irrigation pump operates with diesel costs of Tk14,000 per hectare, but in the project command area of the Teesta barrage, irrigation costs only Tk1,200 per hectare. Farmers were able to harvest 25-29 maunds of rice per bigha(0.2529 hectares). They also saved electricity and diesel worth Tk550 crore.

The Teesta Barrage irrigation project began to provide support for the Monga- affected northerners of Bangladesh but the whole water sharing deal remains unsigned till today.

Text by Saleh Rabbi & Marjiya Baktyer Ahmed
Photography By Din M Shibly


By Maimun Mustafa

The Consumer Perspective

With a Muslim population of roughly 148 million, the Bangladesh market annually experiences substantial changes in consumer trends starting from Ramadan and culminating in Eid. However, is conspicuous consumption the cause for splurging in the month of self-restraint or are there greater overarching issues that compel individuals’ sporadic spending than in any other period of the year?

Bonus Bonanza
Eid means festival bonuses and salaried workers making long queues to cash out at banks. The spending pattern of most individuals are based on the expectation of the eventual payouts before Eid and the shopping sprees are greatly catalyzed by it. Upon receiving of the actual bonuses at the last week of Ramadan, the last few days before Eid observe huge spending sprees. Also there are huge injections of foreign remittance during this period ($1.49 Billion in 2018) and this leads to the increased buying power of the average citizen.

Multiplication in Meals
With the money tunneling deep pockets in people, it also leads to greater spending patterns. Gluttony on food is first on the list. While Ramadan is supposed to be a test of restraint, Muslim consumers tend to spend extravagantly on meals. The total meals remain the average of 3 per day namely, Sehri, Iftar and Dinner. However, imagine a 50% increase per day on Iftar meals only. Whether it is spent on homemade fried snacks or around a restaurant table the expenditure leads to the huge demand pushing inflation when you multiply that number by the 160 million and counting. With more and more food offers coupled with higher prices for essentials in the grocery markets, price levels spiral out of control than any time of the year. Yes, in terms of utility for variety of choice it gives many options. More buy one get one (or two) offers these days allow many to take advantage of the costlier hostels of food dugouts that maybe would not be possible for the middle income earner to share with close ones. Additionally, the discounts and offers are no more only limited to the exclusive few cardholders as mobile operators and portable wallets are bringing exclusive discounts for their users as well.

The Ultimate Choice
More than ever, Ramadan compels brands to fight for the market of the same product as well as the market of all products in the same spend bracket. To clarify imagine that a person has BDT 1000. Now the choices with the amount revolve around a clothing item, an iftar meal, a mobile recharge or going to watch a movie with a friend. Imagine all of those market players vying for that coveted cash from every person. This results in increased choice, the ability to negotiate and thus tremendous utility for the consumer. Nevertheless, with fierce competition comes fiercer marketing and social media feeds get congested with targeted ads as do SMS offer bombardment. This cluttering of excess information may be tiresome on the targeted individual especially after a day of fasting and praying at night. With the giving of ‘salami’ or ‘eidi’ on Eid day, younger consumers receiving cash gifts from their elders also have more purchasing power during the vacations.

Transport Tamale
So there are two burning issues to look at under this umbrella. First the intra region issues during Ramadan and the inter region problem when commuting. Firstly, let’s understand that a BDT 5 to 10 increase to a BDT 10 fare results in a 50% to a 100% increase in a rickshaw or bus ride. If everyone starts increasing the price, an exponential rise hits the consumers deep in their wallets. Furthermore, the market for intra district transport prior to Eid lead to black markets and excess fares. Overall the consumers’ pockets become drained and the process for obtaining tickets become difficult in itself. In addition, those willing to take vacations out of Bangladesh need to book in advance in light of high demand although special tour offers can come to the rescue.

Internet Use Influx
This season may also lead to increases in spending for consumers online. A lot of the time people do not have access to the internet at home because of mobility or as a result of regular malfunction. Ramadan restaurant and fashion selfies spread like wildfire. Also for many NRBs time zone differences lead to those awkward calls from their in country counterparts. While on the go or in supermarkets, when it comes to communicating choices with family friends’ social platforms come as the solution at hand. However, who supplies the internet when Wi-Fi isn’t available. Mobile data is the key for people on the go and hence the spending on data packages rise. Additionally, with more online shop availability tech-savvy consumers with limited time take advantage of Eid sales.

Eid brings with it great spending opportunities. However, with great offers come great responsibility: Spend wisely.


Google is upping their game with the new Pixel 3A and 3A XL

The Pixel 3 smartphone that Google came up with last year was a solid little piece of work, with an extraordinary single-lens (which is now pretty much a rarity in the world of flagship smartphones) rear-facing camera, bolstered by outstanding image-processing algorithms, that managed to best pretty much all its multi-lensed competitors. Even aside from the camera, the Pixel 3 was a pretty magnificent little machine, that was quite firmly on the expensive side of things, but it nevertheless managed to hold its own because of its excellent premium-grade hardware and bloatware-free operating system – Android at its finest. But this year, with the Pixel 3A, and its larger but mostly identically specced-out sibling, the 3A XL, Google is bringing something a lot more affordable to the table, without making a lot of compromises along the way.

The biggest game-changing feature of the Pixel 3A, as it usually has always been with the Pixel series, is its camera. For a phone priced very competitively at USD 400 (and USD 480 for the XL variant), the 3A absolutely decimates the stereotype that one needs to spend upwards of USD 600 to get a phone with a decent camera. The 3A, in fact, boasts the exact same overpowered camera that is present on the Pixel 3, with an old-style single-lens layout and a 12-megapixel sensor, and optical image stabilization to boot. However, the 3A lacks the dedicated Pixel Visual Core image processor that is present in the Pixel 3, and it uses its regular CPU for that purpose instead, as most regular phones do.

For users, the lack of a dedicated image processor only translates into slightly slower saving speeds for photos (especially if effects such as Portrait Mode or HDR are in use), as well as a longer two-second camera launch time from the lock screen. All the fancy photography features present in the Pixel 3 are also readily available on the 3A, and the camera performs admirably even in low-light conditions, easily matching even the beefy camera of the elite Galaxy S10 or iPhone XS devices that cost more than twice as much – a feat made even more impressive because the 3A’s camera has only one lens. The 8-megapixel front camera does not have a wide-angle lens, but it still manages to be quite a powerful performer that does not disappoint much. Face Unlock is not an option on this phone, but it is not a feature many users are likely to miss.

In order to maintain its low price tag, the 3A doesn’t shy away from cutting corners, but thankfully, users who would choose to buy a 3A would not miss said corners very much. For starters, Google’s decision to go with a durable black, white or purple-ish polycarbonate (read: plastic) chassis instead of a more premium metal-and-glass design makes sense, because not only does it help to keep the device’s price down, but it also makes the phone more resilient to smashes and drops.

At less than 8mm thick, the 3A is quite a svelte device, weighing in at less than 150 grams (with the 3A XL weighing about 20 grams more). The fingerprint sensor is placed centrally on the back of the phone, in the most ergonomically friendly location. The 3A also makes the very practical call of retaining the beloved 3.5mm audio jack, making the use of wired earphones a breeze. The speakers on the phone fire downward instead of toward the front, but their sound output is crisp and pleasantly loud.

The Pixel 3A runs a mid-range Qualcomm Snapdragon 670 CPU. It isn’t the fastest CPU on the market, but it isn’t the most sluggish one either. Apps sometimes take a second or two longer to fire up, but once an app is loaded, it runs smoothly with no noticeable lags. With 4 gigabytes of RAM, the 3A is quite a capable multitasker as well. It doesn’t have the blistering pace of phones with Snapdragon 845 or 855 CPUs, but it nevertheless does its job quite well without feeling cumbersome.

The screen of the Pixel 3A is pretty much standard fare. Instead of going with an edge-to-edge display, the 3A’s face retains a prominent forehead and chin that is especially noticeable on the larger XL variant, which makes it look decidedly last-gen. However, the display itself is quite formidable, with a sheet of Dragontrail Glass shielding a 1080p 5.6” 9:19 (6” 9:18 in case of the XL) OLED panel that displays richly saturated colors and deep blacks. The OLED panel also makes it possible for only a few pixels of the display to remain active at all times for displaying the time and notifications while sipping very little battery power.

The 3A’s operating system, as expected on Pixel devices, is Android at its purest, bristling with useful Google services. The 3A is also eligible for officially receiving the latest Android updates for the next three years from the time of its release. Google does not offer free original-quality photo backups to 3A users (as it does for users of the Pixel 3), but the regular high-quality backup feature is still available.

The 3A lacks support for wireless charging, and it does not officially offer water resistance of any level. However, at this price point, wireless charging is not likely a priority for most users, and most regular smartphones nowadays can shrug off all but the most unfortunate of water splashes. However, one particularly depressing feature of the 3A is its lack of support for any expandable microSD storage. The 3A is only available with 64 GB of internal storage, and not having the option to expand it can be a possible dealbreaker.

The 3A has a 3,000 mAh battery, and the 3A XL’s battery goes up to 3,700 mAh. However, thanks to Google’s excellent optimization of Android Pie, both phones manage to hold up fine against a day of heavy use. A bigger battery would have been welcome still, but it’s not anything to complain about.

The Google Pixel 3A manages to marry a fantastic camera to a ridiculously affordable price tag, and even with its compromises, makes a very compelling case for the buyer on a budget. If the lack of expandable storage and some other more esoteric features is not a problem, it is very possibly one of the best available options in this price range, and it greatly pleases this reviewer to recommend it. This is a phone that showed up fashionably late to the party, but not without turning more than just a few heads.


ASUS unleashes new gaming laptops

Product Highlights

The new ASUS TUF Gaming FX505DU/FX0505DT offers plenty of gaming performance for most gaming scenarios including streaming and game recording while also offering a well-balanced working experience. Together with the optional FireCuda SSHD, games and applications load faster while also offering larger storage capacities.

Updated with the latest AMD Ryzen™ processor and NVIDIA GeForce GTX™ graphics on a vibrant NanoEdge display with the new ASUS TUF Gaming FX505DU/FX0505DT, which delivers immersive, high-performance gaming at an affordable price. It’s tested and certified to meet military-grade MIL-STD-810G standards, ensuring the toughness and durability you need to withstand the knocks and bumps of everyday work and play.

Focused Firepower to Take on any Task
This compact gaming laptop punches well above its weight. The ASUS TUF Gaming FX505DU is equipped with up to the latest GeForce GTX™ 1660 Ti GPU and FX505DT features GeForce GTX™ 1650 GPU for smooth gaming and live-streaming, plus an AMD Ryzen processor with quad cores and eight threads that make every day multitasking and productivity quick and efficient. With the combined firepower of these processors, you’re ready to take on any task inside and outside the gaming arena.

Tougher Than Standard
Infused with the spirit of The Ultimate Force (TUF), ASUS TUF Gaming FX505 has passed a series of rigorous military-grade MIL-STD-810G durability tests*, successfully surviving varying conditions including solar radiation exposure, high altitude, and temperature extremes. It’s certified to endure day-to-day use, from accidental knocks to sudden drops on a desk. Durable and stable, FX505 has been pushed to the limit to ensure only the very best for gamers.

HyperCool Technology Improves Durability
Anti-Dust Cooling (ADC), HyperFan technology, and dual-fan cooling CPU and GPU from both sides keep the laptop cool at all times while also actively preventing dust from accumulating overtime to increase reliability.

Immersive DTS Surround Sound
7.1-channel virtual surround sound leads gamers into the gaming world built by immersive audio experiences.

Load Games Faster with FireCuda SSHD
ASUS TUF Gaming FX505 has a RGB keyboard configuration with customizable colors and effects that gamers are familiar with, a recognizable WASD keys, a 0.25mm keycap curve, OverStroke technology for precise control, and keys that can withstand over 20 million presses. The HyperStrike Gaming Keyboard is ideal for both precision gaming and also for a comfortable typing experience.


Best Electronics is the premiere Bangladeshi electronic chain

Best Electronics, a concern of Zaman Group, is the fastest growing electronics retail company in Bangladesh. It was officially launched in 2013 with a clear vision of delivering world-class home appliances from all major global brands to the high-end consumer group of Bangladesh. They started with just 12 showrooms which have now grown to 115 in less than five years.
Admiringly, they have managed to take authorized distributorship of almost all major home appliances brands around the world including Hitachi, Sharp, Panasonic, Whirlpool, Conion, Philips, V-Guard, Toshiba, Midea and many more. Best Electronics also offers easy financial plans to make the purchase easier for their customers called “Super Kisti” system. They also have a significant source of employment for aspiring youth of our country. As of February 2018, they are generating employment for over 1,500 staffs.

Their massive collection ensures excellent customer satisfaction. By some margin, their collection is more extensive than any other competitor. It includes everything from a simple LED Bulb to Japan’s Made Side-By-Side refrigerator. Their massive collection is backed by fantastic customer service.

They have their service wing, Drooto, which is currently the No.1 Company for Installation or Repair Services in Bangladesh. Drooto currently operates in over ten major cities in Bangladesh including Dhaka, Tongi, Sirajganj, Bogra, Rangpur, Pabna, Jhenaidah, Khulna, Barisal, and Feni. With over 13 service centers, Drooto directly employs over 100 dedicated technicians trained to provide on-demand services to a consumer within three days.


By Maimun Ur Rashid Mustafa

Uber Advanced Technologies Group Receives $1 Billion Investment

In the 1993 movie Demolition Man I watched Sylvester Stallone’s character, a man from the past stranded in a dystopian future, struggle to navigate a self-driving car. When we fast forward to 2019 that science fiction has become fact years ahead of Hollywood’s prediction. Global transportation network company, Uber Technologies is striding forward with its autonomous ride sharing services with the support of market leaders to change driving experiences as we know today.

A Billion Dollar Business Deal
Uber announced in mid April that it had secured a $1 billion investment from automobile giant Toyota, car parts manufacturer DENSO and the SoftBank Vision Fund. Uber CEO Dara Khosrowshahi announced via twitter the details of the investment stating that the concerned are collaborating toward ‘the future of mobility’. The funds will go in Uber’s newly formed Advanced Technologies Group (ATG) entity. The terms of the agreement will have, Toyota and DENSO investing $666 million and SoftBank Vision Fund contributing another $333 million, according to the Uber press release. The fund will provide a valuation for Uber ATG amounting to $7.25 billion on a post-money basis. Toyota also plans to contribute an additional $300 million over the next three years to help cover the costs of the activities.

US firm Debevoise & Plimpton LLP is advising the concerned parties in Uber’s ATG deal, a legal agreement that will affect the global market significantly.

Raising the Stakes
The investment is targeted to furthering the work amongst the companies to market next-generation autonomous vehicle hardware. It will prepare the companies and the industry for mass production and commercialization of automated ridesharing vehicles and services This strategic partnership can be seen as a vertical integration strategy for Uber to benefit from the financial backup as well as technical manufacturing know how of the invested parties.

Uber Opportunities
The Uber CEO highlighted the prospects of this monumental deal, ‘The development of automated driving technology will transform transportation as we know it, making our streets safer and our cities more livable. Today’s announcement, along with our ongoing OEM and supplier relationships, will help maintain Uber’s position at the forefront of that transformation’.

In reality this show of faith was essential to Uber’s growth. The company posted a $1.85 billion loss last year, but R&D efforts on products like autonomous cars and flying vehicles pulled the numbers down by accounting for more than $450 million in expenditure. Moving those particularly capital-intensive R&D plays into a new entity will help bring the core of Uber more towards realistic targets. Nevertheless this partnership will boost confidence and may greatly raise the valuation of the company in the upcoming Uber IPO to almost $90-100 billion given they raise $10 billion as anticipated by industry experts. In the past Toyota and SoftBank have also backed Asian TNP Grab, a company where Uber owns 23% of equity. Toyota and Uber are working to bring autonomous Sienna vehicles to Uber’s service by 2021. This collaboration may be seen as a precursor to bringing this technology to Asia via Grab.

Toyota’s Take
Toyota being the second largest car manufacturer in the world as well the sixth largest company by revenue has much to benefit from investing in innovations for tomorrow. With the vision of their subsidiary Connected Company to re-imagine the use of data and technology and deliver ‘effortless services that make life easier and driving safer, more convenient and fun’, this partnership greatly aligns with that objective. Toyota has also been developing the two-pronged approach to self-driving cars where their Chauffeur system takes charge but their Guardian program allows humans being to be in control most of the time. This may greatly reduce worries of ride sharing users who may fear accidents due to the technical complexities of technology while human drivers still retain jobs.

Shigeki Tomoyama, Toyota executive Vice President and President of Toyota’s in-house Connected Company commented in the same press release that, ‘Toyota is dedicated to realizing a safe and secure future mobility society. Leveraging the strengths of Uber ATG’s autonomous vehicle technology and service network and the Toyota Group’s vehicle control system technology, mass-production capability, and advanced safety support systems such as Toyota Guardian™ will enable us to commercialize safer, lower cost automated ridesharing vehicles and services.’ He added, ‘We believe that the combined work of Toyota, DENSO, and Uber ATG on developing next-generation autonomous vehicle hardware will accelerate the timeline for an early success of automated ridesharing services.”

To Infinity and Beyond
In the age of rapid ICT evolution, autonomous vehicles are not dreams but demands of the day. With global industry leaders like Uber, Toyota and DENSO leading the path for such change the future is indeed bright. Then we can only hope if the Demolition Man did wake up in 2021 then maybe even he would also have found it difficult to cause accidents as he would experience seamless self-driving.


Sukuzi in Bangladesh
Suzuki Bangladesh focuses on various segments to serve the Bangladesh market such as Suzuki Hayate in Commuter segment, Suzuki Gixxer, Gixxer SF & GSX R150 in Sports Segment, Suzuki Intruder in Cruiser Segment and Suzuki Lets, Access & Burgman in Scooter Segment.

The Fan Favorite
Suzuki Gixxer has been the most popular bike and also a breakthrough model for the sports segment in Bangladesh. The supreme build quality & the elegant look makes this bike stand out from the rest.

A Balanced Brand
Suzuki keeps a fine balance among its offerings, quality and brand value. As a result, customers can easily differentiate our product over others, which gives the brand the popularity it has in the market.
Not just Quality, Japanese Quality
Suzuki takes stringest measures to ensure the same Japanese quality in the locally manufactured ones. The largest motorbike factory of Bangladesh is owned by Rancon and is operated by the country’s most skilled resources to produce the ultimate finished bikes for the customers. It took years to master this and had to go through extensive test before getting the license to manufacture.

Motorcycle In Demand
The need for faster mobility and convenient transportation has propelled the surge in demand for bikes in the recent years. Also with the rise of the promising ride-sharing industry has also contributed to the growth in demand for bikes.


The motorcycle market is ripe with opportunities

The motorcycle market is poised for rapid growth. The industry predicts that by the end of 2019, there will be 6 lakh units. This has been made possible due to price cuts stemming from when the government slashed the supplementary duty by 25 percentage points to 20 percent on the import of the two-wheeler’s components in fiscal 2016-2017. As more incentive, the duty on import of completely knocked down units of motorcycles was slashed by 25 percentage points to 20 percent in 2016-17 to encourage local assembly and subsequent manufacturing. Local manufacturing by most of the brands has afforded the industry the optimism to predict the 6 lakh unit forecast. As a result of the reduction, prices of bikes fell, encouraging the bike enthusiasts to go out and purchase one for themselves.

Apart from price cuts, the increasing purchasing capacity and the demand for faster mobility has lent itself to the industries thriving success. Although the precise sales data are not available, it is estimated that about 4.80 lakh units of bikes were sold in 2018, posting 24 percent year-on-year growth with the highest growth taking place in the 150cc segment, followed by the 110cc segment. The market is gearing up for a 30 percent growth in 2019.

The government also framed the National Motorcycle Industry Development Policy 2018 with a view to diversifying the country’s manufacturing and exports and creating jobs. The government is looking to increase the motorcycle sector’s contribution to the GDP from the current 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent. The policy also encourages the expansion of the industry’s capacity, now dominated by assembling of imported components. The draft policy aims to locally manufacture 5 lakh motorcycles a year by 2021 with an ambitious goal to double that by 2027.

Alongside the vision to achieve the capacity for meeting the domestic requirement by 2027, the policy also aims to develop a modern and competitive vendor industry where components will be manufactured which will prove helpful for the motorcycle industry. Policies supporting the manufacturing ecosystem domestically would not only help create more jobs for the Bangladeshi people through automobile sector but can also help produce more affordable and qualitative motorcycles. More than half a dozen firms are establishing facilities to assemble and manufacture two-wheelers. Every day new buyers are visiting the sales centers in their quest for faster mobility, be that in traffic congested big cities, small towns or in rural areas.

It is not just the price cuts, the increased demand that proliferated the industry’s growth. With the demand for faster mobility came the burgeoning of ride-sharing apps which in turn fueled the recent increase in bike sales. The government rolled out the policy Ride-sharing Service Guidelines 2017 which came in effect on 8 March 2018 validating the operations of app-based transport services like Uber and Pathao. Under the guideline, ridesharing service companies will have to collect “Ride-sharing Services Company Enlistment Certificate” while the motor vehicle owners have to collect “Ride-sharing Motor Vehicle Enlistment Certificate” to regulate app-based transport services with cars, motorcycles, and ambulances. Any company which seeks the BRTA permission must have at least 100 vehicles in its fleet for operating in Dhaka, 50 for Chittagong and 20 for other cities. With the ride-sharing industry catalyzing the surge in the motorcycle industry, this policy is an effort to streamline the growth of both industries. Furthermore, these app-based mobility solutions are enticing the youth to earn some quick and reasonable cash out of commuting through the sharing of resource.

Operators have predicted that the market will grow exponentially in the next two to three years thanks to rising incomes, the steady growth of the economy and favorable policy and tariff structure that encourages assembling, leading to manufacturing. We can expect a gradual end of the import of completely built bikes into the country.

Even though the growth is promising, it is relatively a new one. Currently, only around 19 percent of households in Bangladesh have motorcycles. Comparing with neighboring countries like Pakistan, India, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Thailand, where the numbers of households owning two-wheelers are 43 percent, 47 percent, 60 percent, 83 percent, and 87 percent respectively – the motorcycle market in Bangladesh still has some catching up to do with the markets in the region. With his expert views on the potentials of the motorcycle market in Bangladesh, J Ekram Hussain, Managing Director, TVS Auto Ltd shares his insights.


By Maimun Mustafa

Prefabricated Building and the Move to Modular

Distant maybe the days of concrete high rise structures that take years for completion. The contemporary construction industry is witnessing a renewed growth of modular construction and prefabricated buildings in 2019.

Modular construction utilizes a fabricated approach to building repetitive structures or factory-produced pre-engineered building units (modules) that are delivered to site and assembled as large volumetric components or as substantial elements of a building. The modular units may form complete rooms, parts of rooms, or separate highly serviced units such as toilets or lifts. The collection of such discrete units usually form either a standalone self-supporting structure or may rely on an independent structural framework for taller constructions.
The use cases of application ranges among private housing, social housing, apartments and mixed use buildings, educational sector and student residences, key worker accommodation and sheltered housing, public and defense sector buildings, health sector buildings and hotels

A Green and Efficient Comeback
Although its history dates back to the mid 1800s, modular construction companies are making the news in part due to the accelerated rate of demand for supply of residential and commercial buildings. Subsequently it ends up saving companies time and money due to the flexible nature of the process.
The construction industry contributes to around 20% of global emissions and rejuvenation of modular building could come as a Godsend for waste reduction. Units are built off campus and hence material usage is optimized often with recyclables. All this assists in greener building. .

Business of Building
The business benefits of this construction method include:
· Economies of scale through repetitive manufacture
· Rapid on site installations
· Greater quality control in building unit as they take place in factories.
· Low self weight leading to foundation savings
· Greater suitability for space constrained sites
· Limited disruption in the vicinity of the construction site
· Better acoustic insulation due to double layer construction
· Adaptable for future extensions, and ability to be dismantled easily and moved if required
· Stability of tall buildings can be provided by a braced steel core.

Structures Beyond
With a projected population forecast of 230-250 million by 2050, Bangladesh will need to reevaluate its priorities when it comes to housing as well as urban and rural planning. This in turn requires a dynamic building method that can address the diverse needs and the requirements of the growing demographic amidst a tight geographic boundary. Modular construction and prefabricated building may be that cost effective, flexible and sustainable answer that the Bangladeshis of tomorrow deserve.